Conjunctions and connectors in english

Key points :Connectors- also called conjunctive words - are words that links two similarelements in a sentence.

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The fourcategories of connector , which are explained below,areA small number of conjunctions và conjunctiveadverbs can linkindividual words or phrases; but the majority can only link two clauses.A coordinatedclauseor phrase mustfollow the clause or phrase lớn which it is connected.A subordinateclause normallyfollows themain clause, but in some cases may precede it. See below.

Coordinating conjunctions are used khổng lồ links two clauses orphrases ofequal value or equal status.There are only a small number of coordinating conjunctions in English:most sources repeat what others say, & menu the following seven,using the convenient acronym FANBOYS.
This is a popular but misleading mnemonic. So forget fanboys, forget for và so, và go fortheacronym BANYO.For canbe forgotten, as it is hardly ever used as a coordinatingconjunction in modern English. It has been replaced by becauseor as.... which areclearly subordinators. As for So,grammar books và websites provide contradictory và often ambiguousinformation. Solet"sclarify the situation.When soimplies purpose it isclearly asubordinatingconjunction. The subordinate clause can come before or after the mainclause.
OK I bought a new cameraso I could take better pictures.OK So Icould take better pictures, I bought a new camera.
Whenso impliesconsequencelinguists disagree as to whether it is a coordinatorasubordinator.But either way, the soclause must follow the main clause. Probably the best way todefinesoimplyingconsequence is as a conjunctiveadverb.For clarification see Englishgrammar - so
OK I bought a new cameraso I took better pictures.NOT OK SoI took better pictures, I bought a new camera.
Manyonline dictionaries & printed grammar books vày not distinguishcoherently between the usage of sofor purpose và sofor consequence, or are very ambiguous on this point.Andvà orcanlink individual words or clauses; yet,andbutnormally only liên kết clauses, but sometimeslink two words. Norcannot linkwords when it is a coordinating conjunction it canonly bởi vì soin partnership withneither,as a correlative sầu conjunction. USAGE:Coordinating connectors give equal value lớn the two elements thatthey coordinate. Theymustbe placed betweenthe two elements that they coordinate.
Iwant three beers and
a glass of lemonadeHe went to bed andwent to sleep.You can have sầu the chocolate mousse orthe letháng tartThey"ll win, orthey"ll thua.This present is not for Peter, butPaulI bought a new dress that was not red but pink.

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We"re going khổng lồ Paris, butnot to lớn Rome.We"re going to Paris, butwe"re also going khổng lồ Rome.He was very tired yetvery happy.The director was rather young, yetthe company was successful.
Can you start a sentence with a conjunction?Alot of grammar books clalặng that it is wrong to lớn start a sentence with aconjunction. This is just wrong! Most of the great writers in theEnglish language have sầu from time to lớn time used sentences starting withconjunctions. In the"King James" version of the Bible, whichwasthe standard work of reference for style in the English language forthreehundred years, twoof the first three sentences in the first chapter of the book ofGenesis start with And....
Theseinitial "ands" remain present in the main modern 20th or 21st centuryversions of the Bible, including the Contemporary English Version (CEV)& the American Standard Version (ASV) . So yes, you canstart asentence with a conjunction.

2.Subordinatingconjunctions :

Subordinating conjunctions are used to link two clauses within a singlesentence, when one clause issubordinate to the other. In other words, the subordinate clauseclarifies, expands or explains the meaning of the main clause. Some types of subordinate clause are introduced bysubordinating conjunctions, others (such as relative clauses) arenot.Comtháng subordinating conjunctions include
as ,because andsince (cause)so andso that (purpose)although andthough(contrastive)after, before, until, while,etc.(temporal)if, unless, as long as, provided, whenever, whatever (conditional,indirect question)that (reportedspeech, indirect statement, consequential)
USAGE:Subordinating conjunctions must come at the start of thesubordinate clause
.There are two sorts of subordinate clauses.Most subordinate clauses can come either beforeor after themain clause. So unlượt thích coordinating conjunctions, subordinatingconjunctions canstand at the start of a sentence.But indirect questions, relative clauses,and other subordinate clauses introduced by that,must normally be placed afterthe mainclause, just lượt thích a coordinated clause (Examples 12, 16 & 17) A subordinate clause cannot standalone: it needs a main clause to lớn complete the sentence.
Examples:Inthese examples, it is notpossible to invert the two clauses in sentences written in redI "m going khổng lồ London because I"ve sầu got a new job.Since it"s raining, I"m going khổng lồ the cinema thisafternoon.She didn"t want any more wine, as she"d already drunkenough.As she"d drunk enough, she didn"t take any more wine.I"m locking the door, sonobody can get inSo he wouldn"t forget to wake up, he mix his alarmfor 5.30.Although I love sầu hlặng, I wouldn"t want to marry hlặng.This book is good, though some bits of it are ratherboring.After I finished work, I went straight trang chính.Until they opened a new factory, they could notproduce enoughIf you see anything suspicious, let me know at once.He asked thepoliceman if he knew of a good restaurant.Provided you can swyên, you can come out on our yacht.You can come out on our yacht, as long as you canswyên.I won"t go there, whatever he says.This ice-creamis so good, that I"m going to have another one.The man saidthat he was born in New York.

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► See also moreinformation on these pages :
► Continuelớn part 3 : ►
Correlating coordinators
(such as Not only....but also)
Look at English grammar with Simple rules, clearexamples.
► Clichồng for Full grammar index
Selectedmain grammar pages
Verbs in English
Verbs:the present tense
Verbs:the future
Past tenses
Phrasalvà prepositional verbs
Gerunds,participles và -ing forms
Irregularverb tables
Nouns,pronouns, adjectives
Nouns in English
Adjectiveorder in English
Sentences& clauses
Relativeclauses in English
Conditionalclauses in English
Wordorder in English
Reportedquestions in English
Wordgăng in English
Theshort story of English
Readingresources: advanced
Reading resources:intermediate
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